Punctate retinal hemorrhage and its relation to ocular and systemic disease in dogs
Fonte: Nathaniel P. Violette and Eric C. Ledbetter
Representative fundus photographs of study dogs with punctate retinal hemorrhages, including a dog with concurrent hypertension
Objective: To describe clinical aspects of dogs with punctate retinal hemorrhage (PRH). Animals studied 83 dogs (119 eyes) with PRH. Procedures: Medical records of dogs evaluated by the Cornell University ophthalmology service with a clinical diagnosis of PRH between 2006 and 2015 were reviewed. For this study, PRH was defined as retinal hemorrhages ≤ 1 optic disk diameter in size and dogs with other posterior segment ocular diseases were excluded. Signalment and clinical features of the dogs were recorded, including concurrent ocular and systemic diseases. Results: Punctate retinal hemorrhage was identified in 119 eyes of 83 dogs. The mean (standard deviation) age of dogs was 10.0 (3.8) years. Mixed-breed dogs, Golden Retrievers, Jack Russell Terriers, and English Springer Spaniels were statistically overrepresented relative to the ophthalmology service canine referral population during the same period. Hemorrhages were found in all retinal locations and varied in number. Concurrent ocular disease was present in 78 eyes (66%) including keratoconjunctivitis sicca, uveitis, and cataracts. Fifty dogs (60%) suffered from concurrent systemic disease and diabetes mellitus, multiple myeloma, and systemic hypertension were statistically overrepresented in the PRH population. Less frequently, other serious systemic diseases were present in dogs with PRH including immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, leptospirosis, metastatic neoplasia, and thromboembolic disease. Conclusions: The risk of PRH in dogs may be increased by certain ocular and systemic diseases. As the presence of PRH can be associated with underlying systemic disease in dogs, it may prompt further clinical investigation and diagnostics.