Iris biopsy to investigate feline iris hyperpigmentation
Fonte: Heidi J. Featherstone, et al.
A, Focal iris hyperpigmentation in the right eye of Maine Coone (8.5 y, male neutered). The histopathological diagnosis was FDIM. B, Multifocal iris hyperpigmentation in right eye of domestic shorthair cat (12 y, male neutered). The histopathological diagnosis was melanosis. C, Diffuse iris hyperpigmentation in left eye of domestic shorthair cat (7.5 y, female neutered). The histopathological diagnosis was FDIM. D, Generalized iris hyperpigmentation in right eye of domestic shorthair cat (10 y, female neutered). The histopathological diagnosis was melanosis.
Objective: To evaluate the benefit of iris biopsy in cats with iris hyperpigmentation to differentiate melanosis from early feline diffuse iris melanoma (FDIM). Methods: The medical records of cats with unilateral iris hyperpigmentation that had undergone iris biopsy between February 2013 and September 2016 at Willows Veterinary Centre & Referral Service were reviewed. Results: Seven cats with unilateral iris hyperpigmentation were included in this retrospective study. The biopsy procedure was performed under general anesthesia (n = 7) with neuromuscular blockade (n = 6) following pre‐operative topical miotic therapy (n = 5). One to six biopsy samples per eye were harvested from areas of hyperpigmentation. The samples were partial thickness (n = 4 eyes) and full thickness (n = 3 eyes). Complications were minor: mild intra‐operative hemorrhage (n = 4), fibrin clot (n = 2), corneal ulcer (n = 1), post‐operative ocular hypertension (n = 1), dyscoria (n = 1), and pseudopolycoria (n = 2). The first biopsy was diagnostic in six cats; a repeat biopsy was necessary in one cat. Histopathology was consistent with melanosis in five cats and with early FDIM in two cats. Screening for signs of metastatic disease (thoracic computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography) was negative in the two cats with a preliminary diagnosis of early FDIM. Subsequent enucleation and histopathology confirmed the initial diagnosis in both cases. Conclusions: Iris biopsy in cats with iris hyperpigmentation can be beneficial to differentiate melanosis from early FDIM and thereby help to justify the decision for early enucleation.